Monday, August 6, 2012

Know the History of Plastic Surgery

Plastic Surgery Plastic surgery or a branch of medical science studies to modify or reconstruct or repair of certain parts of the human body. The word plastic in plastic surgery, in English is called "plastic surgery", taken from the Greek plastike (tekhne) which means moving. It could also mean "the art of modeling malleable flesh".

History of plastic surgery began in 800 BC in India. A prominent figure in this field is Sushruta, Mr. surgical operation, which makes an important contribution to the field of plastic surgery and cataract in the 6th century BC. Sushruta in cooperation with the Charak made a lot of medical work in Sanskrit, and translated into Arabic during the Abbasid Caliphate in 750 AD. Arabic translation of their works brought by Arab traders to Europe. Until finally a few areas in Europe began to familiar with surgical reconstruction techniques Sushruta.

Several centuries later some doctors from the British came to India to see the rhinoplasties performed by the local method. News about rhinoplasty performed by Vaidya Kumhar is published by the Gentleman's Magazine in 1794. After that Joseph Constantine Carpue persist for 20 years in India to study the local plastic surgery methods.

Carpue finally doing plastic surgery for the first time in the western world in 1815. Equipment used in accordance with what is written in his book Sushruta Samhita which is then further modified according to the development of western medical world. Egyptians and Romans also knew plastic surgery. Since the first century BC the Romans can perform plastic surgery as simple as repairing damaged ears.

The study of plastic surgery is only done through the Greek medical books written by their predecessors due to religious reasons, they are not allowed to dissect of both humans and animals for experiments. However, Aulus Cornelius Celsus left some surprisingly accurate description of the anatomy related to plastic surgery, some of which are on the genitals and bones. In the mid-15th century Europe, Heinrich von Pfolspeundt describes the process of making a new nose at people who have an accident by taking the skin on the back of the arm. However, plastic surgery is still not popular in those days because the risk is still very large. Finally in the 19th century and 20 plastic surgery has become very common due to anesthetic technique has been good so plastic surgery does not cause extreme pain.

Besides sterilization and disinfection techniques that have been very good, also the discovery of antibiotics such as penicillin sulfadan makes postoperative infection arising to be very minimal. In 1792, Chopart perform plastic surgery on the lip using skin folds of the neck. While in 1814, Joseph Carpue successful plastic surgery at a British army soldier who lost his nose due to mercury poisoning. In 1818, a German surgeon, Carl Ferdinand von Graefe published a journal entitled Rhinoplastik. Von Graefe modified the method of Italian plastic surgery using a skin fold using normal skin of the arm.

The first plastic surgeons in America is John Peter Mettauer the first plastic surgery in cases of cleft lip with equipment designed by him. In 1845, Johann Friedrich Dieffenbach wrote journals about rhinoplasty and introduce the concept of cosmetic surgery to beautify the nose that had previously been operated on.

In 1891, an American otorhinolaryngologist John Roe, publish their work in the form of a young woman with a nose that has been with the purpose of cosmetic plastic surgery. In World War I, a New Zealand otolaryngologist working in London, Harold Gillies, developed many of the techniques of modern plastic surgery in caring for soldiers who suffered damage to the face.

Gillies comes from the UK but a Red Cross volunteer in France. During the volunteer Gillies learn about plastic surgery. He became very successful and famous for his work. During World War II expanded the work of Gillies cousin Archibald McIndoe, who pioneered plastic surgery for the treatment of severe burns. In 1946, Gillies perform gender reassignment surgery female to the first man in the world. Until the end of the plastic surgery to be highly developed in the 20th Century.